Goals The plant breeder usually has in mind an ideal plant that combines a maximum number of desirable characteristics. The recent developments in genetic engineering techniques further equipped the plant breeders to reshuffle genes even across the organisms. You can always be sure you're reading unbiased, factual, and accurate information. High Yields: The ultimate aim of the plant breeder is to improve the yield of crop plants. Natural selection tends to favour plants that can compete with neighbouring plants for light, water and nutrients, defend themselves from being eaten and digested by animals, and disperse their seed over long distances. Such processes, repeated over many generations, can change the hereditary makeup and value of a plant population far beyond the natural limits of previously existing populations.
Conventional breeding achieves it by crossing together plants with relevant characteristics, and selecting the offspring with the desired combination of characteristics, as a result of particular combinations of genes inherited from the two parents. This is because wild plants make very poor crops. Varieties for rain fed areas, saline soils. They are therefore higher yielding and also less prone to being flattened in the wind, a major cause of yield loss known as lodging. This process is called as nebulization of sugarcane. Distinguished Achievements of Plant Breeding 7.
In 1998, he identified traitor gene, which responds to specific band of fertilizers and insecticides. Disease and Pest Resistance: Resistant varieties offer the cheapest and most convenient method of disease and pest control. We do not endorse these articles, we are neither affiliated with the authors of these articles nor responsible for their content. Maturity Duration: a It permits new crop rotation and extends crop area. He was Director of Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore. It can be done in following ways i.
Similarly, Mung is now grown as a summer crop in addition to the main kharif crop. Tallness, high tillering and profuse branching are desirable characters in forage crops. Development of wheat varieties suitable for late planting has permitted rice-wheat rotation. Improved quality- Improved quality of agricultural products has contributed a lot to the human well-being. He also developed concept of parallel series of variation or law of homologous series of variation. Hence, resistance to shattering is an important objective to plant breeders. The first artificial interspecific plant hybrid was made by Thomas Fairchild in 1717.
Some of the objectives may be summarized as follows. Since its subject matter embraces all aspects of crop improvement, its content is sought after by both industry and academia. Shelter :- In addition to food by produce of agriculture farms are used in making shelter by farmers of rural areas. Traditionally maize is a kharif crop but, scientists are now able to grow maize throughout the year. The nutritional quality of plants can be greatly improved by breeding. His method of selection was designed without the understanding of principles of inheritance.
His method of selection was designed without an understanding of the principal of inheritance. Creation of New Varieties: The major achievement of the plant breeding has been to create new varieties such as: a Semi dwarf wheat varieties: These varieties were developed by N. The term of office for the Editors shall be two years and renewable. Borlaug 1953 first outlined the method of developing multiline in wheat. Improvement of nutritional quality by genetic engineering eg.
Breeding of such crops tackles the problems of energy production for rapidly increasing human population. It is obtained by crossing between sweet will am and carnation species of Dianthus. Higher yields of food plants contribute to a more abundant food supply, a more profitable agriculture, and a lower cost of food products for the consumer. In 1946, the name of this institute is changed to its present one, i. . Higher yield: Higher crops yield.
Drugs :- Breeding of medicinal plants plays an important role in production of many important drugs. Other links Posted on Author Medicinal plants including microbes Back to botany topic list India is endowed with a rich wealth of medicinal plants. With improvements in our knowledge about which plant genes do what, we now know many genes that could contribute to improving sustainable food production. One of the major facts that has emerged during the short history of scientific breeding is that an enormous wealth of genetic variability exists in the plants of the world and that only a start has been made in tapping its potential. By employing certain plant breeding techniques, new varieties are developed. The development of semi-dwarf varieties of wheat and rice has revolutionized rice and wheat collection. Distinguished Achievements of Plant Breeding: 1.
Furthermore, their early maturity frees the land quickly, often allowing an additional planting of rice or other crop the same year. Presence of neurotoxin in khesari dal Lathyrus sativus seeds has toxic effects on human health which causes paralysis of lower limbs called lathyrism. Mung, Black Gram, Horse Gram, etc. Synchronized maturity — Pulses 11. Population is increasing very rapidly and the food supply is inadequate. In breeding ornamentals, attention is paid to such factors as longer blooming periods, improved keeping qualities of flowers, general thriftiness, and other features that contribute to usefulness and aesthetic appeal. A list of some important released crop varieties is given below: 4.
Write out the reasons for the Failure of Water Fall Model. By employing certain plant breeding techniques, new varieties are developed. Activities in Plant Breeding 6. These traits are governed by many genes, each having a small effect. Novelty itself is often a virtue in ornamentals, and the spectacular, even the bizarre, is often sought. Qualitative characters The easiest characters, or traits, to deal with are those involving discontinuous, or qualitative, differences that are governed by one or a few major genes. Improved agronomic characters -Production of more tillers — E.