We do not host, upload or link to any video, films, media file, live streams etc. The result of this research identifies the deceit of the afflicted girls and the personal greed of their parents, along with different members of the Salem community, as the cause of the witch trials. According to Wendel Craker, no court ever convicted an accused of witchcraft on the basis of spectral evidence alone, but other forms of evidence were needed to corroborate the charge of witchcraft. In the late 1600s the Salem Village community in the now Danvers, Massachusetts was fairly small and undergoing a period of turmoil with little political guidance. Most Puritans believed in witchcraft, and witches had been prosecuted in Massachusetts several times in the preceding decades.
Salem witch trials Salem witch trials, illustration from Pioneers in the Settlement of America by William A. Kenan is really anxious about the date and makes extensive plans to ensure that things run smoothly. The number of trials and executions varied according to time and place, but it is generally believed that some 110,000 persons in total were tried for and between 40,000 to 60,000 were executed. The accused generally were prosperous and from the commercially oriented Salem Town. This medieval text Der Hexenhammer in German prescribes judicial procedures in cases of alleged witchcraft. Courtesy of the American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass. If the colony imprisoned you, you had to pay for your stay.
Rosenthal came to the conclusion that the girls would receive much attention from the publicized trial cases. The Salem Witchcraft Papers: Verbatim Transcripts of the Legal Documents of the Salem Witchcraft Outbreak of 1692 Da Capo Press, , revised and augmented, 2011. Documents Pertaining to the Seventeenth-Century Witchcraft Trials. There is uncertainty regarding the relationship between the slaves and their ethnic origins. General Resources Mackay, Christopher S. After the Court of Oyer and Terminer was dissolved, the Superior Court of Judicature took over the witchcraft cases. If in doubt, do not use.
The Devil in the Shape of a Woman: Witchcraft in Colonial New England Norton,. The tight-knit religious communities of their founders were giving way to more business-oriented and competitive towns. The of odd behaviour also mirrored that of the children of a family who in 1688 were believed to have been bewitched, a description of which had been provided by Congregational minister in his book Memorable Providences, Relating to Witchcraft and Possessions 1689 and which may have been known by the girls in Salem Village. The events that followed are notorious in American history. Witchcraft, Magic, and Religion in 17th-Century Massachusetts The University of Massachusetts Press,. Witch Hunts in Europe and America: An Encyclopedia Greenwood Press,.
The abuses of the Salem witch trials would contribute to changes in U. The Salem Witch Trials Charges. They screamed, made odd sounds, threw things, contorted their bodies, and complained of biting and pinching sensations. In their place he established a Superior Court of Judicature, which was instructed not to admit spectral evidence. By May 1693 everyone in custody under conviction or suspicion of witchcraft had been pardoned by Phips.
This is the best known i. Trials resumed in January and February, but of the 56 persons indicted, only 3 were convicted, and they, along with everyone held in custody, had been pardoned by Phips by May 1693 as the trials came to an end. Records of the Salem Witch-Hunt Cambridge University Press, includes Richard B. Although it provided no answers, its baking outraged Parris, who saw it as a blasphemous act. All the information listed here is to be found on the web elsewhere.
In January 1697 the General Court of Massachusetts declared a day of fasting and contemplation for the tragedy that had resulted from the trials. He described them to be fraudsters and came to this conclusion after analyzing different opinions of different authors including Thomas Hutchinson who was a great historian. The girls were not merely picked from the bunch in the society; they would be used as a political statement to the society. He continued to state that Judge William Stoughton was an incredibly terrible judge. He too was convicted and, along with four others, was hanged on 19. As the weeks passed, many of the accused proved to be enemies of the , and Putnam family members and in-laws would end up being the accusers in dozens of cases. Many in the community who viewed the unfolding events as travesties remained mute, afraid that they would be punished for raising objections to the proceedings by being accused of witchcraft themselves.
Significantly, those that they began identifying as other witches were no longer just outsiders and outcasts but rather upstanding members of the community, beginning with , a mature woman of some prominence. Parris, whose largely theological studies at Harvard College now had been interrupted before he could graduate, was in the process of changing careers from business to the ministry. Useful databases include HeinOnline Legal Classics Library see ; Clair, Henry St. This translation is in the public domain. Nineteen persons had been hanged, and another five not counting had died in custody. He stated that he cannot describe the behaviors of the girls used as they were just young.
Most of the primary source materials statutes, transcripts of court records, contemporary accounts are available electronically. Such a specter could only be seen, it was believed, by the victim, so the evidence could neither be refuted nor corroborated and for that reason had not been admitted in the past. On July 19 five more convicted persons were hanged, including and the latter of whom responded to her by saying that she was no more a witch than the judge was a wizard. Some three-fourths of those European witch hunts took place in western , the , , northern , and Switzerland. Frances Hill also documents the events of the Salem trials.
Compiles trial evidence documents, contemporary comments, and legal redress. The Salem Witch Trials Reader Da Capo Press,. Not so, this October with three classics to see. The magistrates then had not only a confession but also what they accepted as evidence of the presence of more witches in the community, and mounted. On October 3 father, , an influential minister and the president of Harvard, condemned the use of spectral evidence and instead favoured direct accusations: The devil never assists men to do supernatural things undesired. Given the subsequent spread of the strange behaviour to other girls and young women in the community and the timing of its display, however, those physiological and psychological explanations are not very convincing. Even though the hysteria was not limited to Salem, a close analysis of the community reveals some patterns concerning witchcraft accusations throughout.