Undaunted by this high-handedness, the communists marched ahead and the labour movement of this country witnessed growing communist influence. Growth and Development of the Trade Union Movement The growth and development of. Lokhande, himself a worker, organized a meeting of 10,000 textile workers for a very simple demand of weekly holiday and it was granted to textile workers in Mumbai. The non-co-operative movement of Gandhiji during 1920-21 and his support to the demands of industrial labour also greatly influenced the working class movement Left-Wing Unionism Period 1924-1934 In 1924, a violent and long-drawn-out strike by unions led to the arrest, prosecution, conviction and imprisonment of many communist leaders. Over the years the average income of the workers has been on an increase. They are neither expelled nor cease to be members.
Secondly, the trial could be described as a platform for ideological propagation of Marxism. All these unnerved the colonial authorities who now thought that the Indian labour problem merited attention. They give limited attention to peaceful methods for the settlement of demands and disputes. Trade unions safeguard and improve service conditions. The trade union the office bearers and the member are insulated against a suit or other legal proceeding linked with the strike of the workers the trade union Act through Section 18, unfolds un umbrella of protection to them. Subtle changes are visible in the pattern of political unionism.
All these unions have been working for the betterment of workers. More class-conscious proletarian actions and growth of trade unions became more visible immediately after the World War I. First, many trade unions are not affiliated to any central trade union. Sukomal Sen observes that Mr. But this nerve-wrecking trial created a great furore in the international arena.
This gives rise to another problem that unions ceases to function democratically. Under conditions of multiplicity of unions interested in increasing their membership. They lack the knowledge of basic principles and practices of trade unionism. But more pertinent point is that they are able to form new union because law permits and gives sanctity to the small unions. This left-awakening in this country stirred up foreign labour organisation and labour leaders of international stature to help the Indian labour movement.
To curb this communist infiltration in the Indian labour movement, repressive measures like the arrest of top active communist leaders, the Kanpur Conspiracy Case against the union leaders, etc. Several incidents of strikes and protests by workers have been recorded during this time. In the infamous Cawnpore Trial, leaders like Muzaffar Ahmed, S. Besides this, the workers own solidarity is lost. It was a central law which provided a legal status to the registered trade unions and conferred on them and their members a measure of immunity from civil suits and criminal prosecutions. The following years saw the formation of several labour associations and unions. Indian Federation of Labour and Hind Mazdoor Panchayat were amalgamated and formed Hind Mazdoor Sabha H.
The National commission on labour has stated that only 131 unions had a membership of over 5,000. The right to form union is thus doubly recognized in India by the constitution of India and The Trade Unions Act 1926. Such world- shaking event and Marxian doctrines invigorated Indian working classes to launch movement afresh. They have now become a permanent feature of the industrial society. A Dange and others were charged with conspiracy of propagating Bolshevism in India as Well as to overthrow the sovereignty of the King Emperor over British India by means of an organised violent revolution.
Very often negotiations with employers fail due to such political leadership. Government displayed its wisdom and ingenuity in curbing trade union activities. Finally, the trade unions concentrated their attention mainly among the educated white-collared workers such as printers, clerks, railway staff, etc. Lack of Interest In order to make the trade union movement succeed, the members of trade unions should take keen interest in the union affairs. The immunity from civil suit will not be available in respect of acts which are unlawful tortuous or violent and which fall out umbrella of protection of section 18 of the Act. But what did the Government really gain from this scandalous trial? P Wadia who established the Madras Labour Union in 1918. In India, every factory does not have a trade union.
Any seven persons can get together to form a union. This creates various difficulties before the unions and restricts their activities. Is in interference with right of some other person to dispose of his capital or his labour as he wills. The low income of the workers is one of the reasons but there are certain other reasons of limited finances: i Workers are apathetic towards the trade unions and do not want to contribute to union funds out of their hard earned money. Deshpande formed a new organisation named. Brethren and Unity have become the basic principle in protecting oneself against any Exploitation.
. Every office bearer or member of a registered trade union has a right to inspect the books of accounts and also the list of members of the trade union at such times as may be provided for the rules of the trade union. Most of the trade unions in India have professional political leadership. The registrar can invoke the power of cancellation of registration of a trade union only if there is sufficient material before him to establish that the trade union concerned has committed willful contravention of any provision of the Act in other words unless the international violation of any provision of the Act is established the registrar cannot invoke the said power. They form a strong force in collective bargaining.
Despite certain recommendations by the Commission, the Government of Bombay refused to implement these recommendations. A meager amount around 5 per cent is spent on trade disputes. The factors responsible for this situation were: i The industrial unrest grew up as a result grave economic difficulties created by the war. The difficulties faced by south Africans during oppression and the apartheid era have made south Africans the way they are today in terms of knowing their rights and how to fight for such rights. Theoretically each trade union follows the path of democracy and has register of members, holds elections, maintains accounts etc.