Alluvial soils are very important for the growth of the various crops like cereals and pulses. These accounts were generally directed towards the assessment of differential soil fertility and land revenue collection, but did not attempt classification of soil types in the country. In the eastern parts finer particles predominate and loams and fine silty clays are formed. They have excess of iron oxide and potash but are short of Kaolin. Here We are Sharing Indian Soils types and Features of those Soils.
In their chemical composition they are mainly siliceous and aluminous; with free quartz as sand the alkali content is fair, some parts being quite rich in potassium. It is found in the new river beds. Heavy rainfall results in leaching of the soils and turns it acidic. It is rich in soluble salts and phosphorous but lacks nitrogen and organic matter in it. Under the bangar deposits, beds of lime modules are found and are known as Kankar and these are usually found in Haryana and are a good source of raw material for cement plants. Red Soils: These are derived from weathering of ancient metamorphic rocks of Deccan Plateau.
The sad part is we are not giving it back for example- Cutting trees daily but not planting new trees daily. No vegetation grows on the Kallar land. This has also caused the formation of heavy soils in low lying areas. The soils are not fertile. The peaty soils are black, heavy and highly acidic.
Reader Interactions Shashank and Ravi: The forest soils vary in structure and texture depending on the mountain environment where they are formed. On the uplands, the red soils are thin, poor and gravelly, sandy or stoney and porous, but in the lower areas they are rich, deep dark and fertile. Occupy the plains from Punjab to Assam and also occur in the valleys of Narmada and Tapti in M. Iron oxide and potash Organic matter, Nitrogen, Phosphate and Calcium Cashewnuts, tea, coffee, rubber Arid and Desert Western Rajastan, north Gujarat and southern Punjab Soluble salts, phosphate Humus, Nitrogen Only drought resistant and salt tolerant crops such as barley, rape, cotton, millets maize and pulses Saline and Alkaline Western Gujarat, deltas of eastern coast, Sunderban areas of West Bengal, Punjab and Haryana Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium Nitrogen and Calcium Unfit for agriculture. Black soil is mostly found in the Deccan Trap, covering large areas of Maharashtra, Gujarat and western Madhya Pradesh.
P Narmada, parts of Vindhya and Satpura , almost the whole of Maharashtra, northern Karnataka, north-western T. The layers of Soil are called as Horizons. This is the part of the Thar Desert and it continues into neighbouring Pakistan. These rivers contain a large amount of alluvial soil in their basins. On getting dry, the soils develop cracks. The alluvial soils are fertile and are responsible for making the northern plains, the granary of India.
The soils have humus and are thus fertile. With proper irrigation facilities, this soil can also produce rice and sugar cane. When iron content is lower it is yellow or brown. Shillong Plateau has a laterite soil belt which extends towards Sadiya in Assam. These soils contain essential as. They have been brought down and layaway by three great Himalayan rivers- Ganga, Brahmaputra and Sutlej, and their tributaries.
The mountain soil is formed mainly due to the deposition of organic matter provided by the forests. Almost all laterite soils are very poor in lime and magnesia and deficient in nitrogen. On the other hand, the soils of the Extra-Peninsula are formed due to the depositional work of rivers and wind. Other regions with red soil include parts of Karnataka, south-east of Maharashtra, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Chota Nagpur plateau; parts of south Bihar, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh; Aravalis and the eastern half of Rajasthan Mewar or Marwar Plateau , parts of North-Eastern states. Laterite and Lateritic Soils 5.
They are especially suitable for plantations of tea, coffee, spices and tropical fruits in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala and wheat, maize, barley and temperate fruits in Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttaranchal. Laterite soil generally is poor in lime and deficient in nitrogen. In coastal regions some alluvial deposits are formed due to wave action. They are pale brown, sandy clays and loams, more dry and leached, less calcareous and carbonaceous i. The latter is a cash crop. Afforestation can help stabilizing shifting sand dunes.
They are very deep and constitute some of the most fertile tracts of the country. . In areas of deep soils, besides cotton, a host of other crops like tobacco, groundnuts etc. Wherever soils arc less deep as on the slopes of the plateaus and hills, and unable to hold water, there instead of cotton, barley, millets, pulses etc. These areas are flooded almost every year.
The red colour is due more to the wide diffusion rather than to high percentage of iron content. The various agents of gradation and weathering acts on the parent rock to produce a thin layer of Soil. This is a very logical classification of Indian soils and has gained wide acceptance. Black Regur soil Deccan plateau- Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh,Tamil Nadu, Valleys of Krishna and Godavari. In the Himalayan region, such soils are mainly found in valley basins, depressions, and less steeply inclined slopes.