Researchers have to be far more sensitive to ethical issues, bias and the philosophical underpinnings of their research question than those undertaking quantitative studies. However, the event does not have to be a rare or uniquely significant to support new thinking about the research problem or to challenge an existing hypothesis. The job of the researcher is to maintain intellectual rigor as she does her best to make sense of all the information collected. Examples are provided of how these researchers' philosophical orientation influences the application of case study in practice. International Journal of Social Research Methodology. Analysis and representation across a continuum.
Objective Hermeneutics Objective hermeneutics is a method of interpreting textual data where a team of researchers develops different interpretations and mutually criticizes such interpretations to modify or exclude such interpretations. Business school faculty generally develop case studies with particular learning objectives in mind. Case study designs have been used across a number of disciplines, particularly the social sciences, education, business, law, and health, to address a wide range of research questions. Enthusiasm for qualitative exploration systems, for example, activity research, contextual investigation research and ethnography, which concentrate on comprehension social marvels in their normal setting, has consequently developed. Comparisons between case study and statistical research do little to advance this qualitative approach, and fail to recognize its inherent value, which can be better understood from the interpretive or social constructionist viewpoint of other authors Merriam, ; Stake,. A case may be chosen because of the inherent interest of the case or the circumstances surrounding it.
We propose possible reasons why researchers might make this misinterpretation. For example, consider a convenience store looking to improve its patronage. The methodology of analytical induction is inspecting initial cases to identify common factors and the seek explanation for existing linkages, and reworking the explanations based on the findings from new cases. Qualitative data cannot be mathematically analyzed in the same comprehensive way as quantitative results — in fact their analysis and interpretation can become arduous. A case in case study methodology. While widely available, not all programs are available in all locations or in both online and on-campus formats.
Study conclusions will inform future camps for young people with chronic disease, and practitioners are able to compare similarities between this case and their own practice for knowledge translation. The intrinsic case is used to understand the particulars of a single case, rather than what it represents. Qualitative observation deals with the 5 major sensory organs and their functioning — sight, smell, touch, taste, and hearing. It includes the study of ethics as related to obligation, rights, duty, right and wrong, choice etc. Is the case study descriptive? However, identifying a case to investigate involves more than choosing the research problem.
When designing your case study, be sure you have thoroughly addressed all aspects of the problem and do not leave gaps in your analysis. Qualitative research methods make it easier to understand that as it is more communicative and descriptive. Overcoming barriers to the recruitment of nurses as participants in health care research. Select the cases that you will study and how you will gather data. Clarity in this alignment is fundamental to ensuring the veracity of the research and depends on the design developed. The duration and intensity of researcher immersion in the case enhanced depth of description and trustworthiness of study findings.
Quantitative research method focuses on describing the characteristics of a population. In: Mayer T, Steneck N, editors. This involves careful and in-depth consideration of the nature of the case, historical background, physical setting, and other institutional and political contextual factors Stake,. More than one case can be simultaneously studied; however, each case study is a concentrated, single inquiry, studied holistically in its own entirety Stake, ,. To defend against the criticism of too much in the categories and relationships identified from data, qualitative analysts respond by thoroughly articulating their definitions of codes and linking those codes soundly to the underlying data, thereby preserving some of the richness that might be absent from a mere list of codes, whilst satisfying the need for repeatable procedure held by oriented researchers. Is the case study particular? The review confirms that the results, finding, and conclusions, are supported by the data and is internally coherent and establishes the confirmability. Qualitative research and case study applications in education 2nd ed.
By using qualitative case study techniques, the study generates evidence which suggests on the firm level that wind energy and labelling influences competitive advantage of firms, can dictate a premium price, can differentiate products, yet achieve a low-cost advantage. Competency H: Evaluate the ethical issues involved in choosing a sample, gathering data, and reporting the results of case study research. Interviews also give you the opportunity to ask follow-up questions, read body language, and pick up on other subtle cues that a more quantitative research method might not. The purpose of this paper is to guide the novice researcher in identifying the key elements for designing and implementing qualitative case study research projects. Finally, personal beliefs and past experiences played a role both in physicians' decisions to refer patients and in patients' decisions to have breast reconstructions. Begin this part of the section by repeating what you consider to be your most important or surprising finding first, then systematically review each finding.
The study is bounded to 10 general practice clinics in Denmark, who had received federal funding to implement preventative care services based on a Motivational Interviewing intervention. This issue extends beyond case study research, and others have noted inconsistencies in reporting of methodology and method by qualitative researchers. The purpose of a paper in the social sciences designed around a case study is to thoroughly investigate a subject of analysis in order to reveal a new understanding about the research problem and, in so doing, contributing new knowledge to what is already known from previous studies. This really affects his reading comprehension as well as other subjects. Schematic representation of case study research designs.
European Journal of Cancer Care. Qualitative methods and cross-method dialogue in political science. For example, if the research problem is to identify strategies to improve policies that support girl's access to secondary education in predominantly Muslim nations, you could consider using Azerbaijan as a case study rather than selecting a more obvious nation in the Middle East. The findings were a historical case report, which resulted from an ethnographic study of vegetarianism. One-on-One Interview: Conducting in-depth interviews is one of the most common qualitative research methods.
Despite the initial positive wave of research, more recent studies are reporting inconclusive or mixed results of the efficacy of gamification use in education. Again, Lincoln and Guba 1985 is the salient reference. The primary pitfall of this type of study is that initial findings may seem convincing enough to be released prematurely as conclusions. Key contributors to case study research and major contextual influences on its evolution are included. Introduction: Disciplining the practice of qualitative research. The Academy of Management Review.