Those who aspire to leadership in the labor organizationsfully recognize the importance of the oratorical art. Thus, Mar 25 Theory: Parties in the Electorate Required Reading Beck, Chapters 6, 7, 8. Political Studies 25: 3 —24, 161 —181. This peculiarity, common toall classes not excepting the proletariat, furnishes a psychologicalsoil upon which a powerful directive hegemony can flourishluxuriantly. When disputes arose with the employers about wages, therepresentative of the organization, before undertaking anynegotiations, had to be furnished with a written authority,authorized by the signature of every member of the corporation. For technical and administrative reasons, no less than fortactical reasons, a strong organization needs an equally strongleadership. For the masses, this essentialdifference between the reality and the ideal remains a mystery.
This is perfectly natural, for the leaders cannot bereplaced at a moment's notice, since all the other members of theparty are absorbed in their everyday occupations and are strangers tothe bureaucratic mechanism. Required Readings Wattenberg, Chapters 3, 4. The present work is a critical discussion of the problem of democracy. Organization, since it is the only means of attaining the ends ofsocialism, is considered to comprise within itself the revolutionarycontent of the party, and this essential content must never besacrificed for the sake of form. It isnone the less true that as a form of social life we must choosedemocracy as the least of evils. Either they must accept theking's abdication, which would involve the accession to the throne ofPrince William of Prussia, a man of ultrareactionary tendencies,whose reign was likely to be initiated by an uprising among the lowerclasses; or else they must abandon their liberal schemes, andmaintain in power the king now become indispensable.
In the mass, and even in the organized mass of the labor parties,there is an immense need for direction and guidance. He used these observations to develop his theory of hierarchical leadership. He went to the University of Turin, Italy, where he taught economics, political science, and sociology until 1914, when he became professor of economics at the University of Basel, Switzerland, a post he held until 1926. The origins of can be found in this analysis. In the various parties and labor organizations ofdifferent countries the influence of the leaders is mainly determined apart from racial and individual grounds by the varying developmentof organization. Pero aunque el libro tenga más de 100 años, lo que dice es totalmente actual, aunque cambiando los nombres.
But in actual fact, as theorganization increases in size, this control becomes purelyfictitious. Political Parties continues to be a foundation work in the literature and is a necessary addition to the libraries of contemporary political scientists, sociologists, and historians. He observed firsthand that the ordinary members of these working-class organizations were practically excluded from the decision-making process, which was effectively in the hands of the more experienced and skilled leadership cadres. The importance of the principle of nationality is undeniable, and most of the national questions of Western Europe might be solved in accordance with this principle. Numerous and varied are the personal qualities thanks to whichcertain individuals succeed in ruling the masses.
The rank andfile of the working-class parties have a certain natural distrust ofall newcomers who have not been openly protected or introduced intothe party by old comrades; and this is above all the case when thenewcomer is derived from another social class. But age in itself is no barrierwhatever to the power of the leaders. Political Parties continues to be a foundation work in the literature and is a necessary addition to the libraries of contemporary political scientists, sociologists, and historians. As such they react with the utmost energy against anyattempt to analyze their structure or their nature, as if it were amethod of vivisection. Theprinciple of organization is an absolutely essential condition forthe political struggle of the masses.
Democratic evolution has aparabolic course. Mayer, The Divided Democrats, Westview 1996. Kochanowski, Urzeitklange, und Wetterleuchten Geschichtlicher Gesetze in den Ereignissen der Gegenwart, Wagner, Innsbruck, 1910, p. Political Parties continues to be a foundation work in the literature and is a necessary addition to the libraries of contemporary political scientists, sociologists, and historians. This enduringspectacle is simultaneously encouraging and depressing. It is above all in the superiorgrades of the organization that the tendencies we are here analyzingare especially conspicuous. The issue is: due to division-of-labor efficiencies Smith , the logic of collective action Olson , and uneven quality distributions across a population Plato, Aristotle, Pareto, Murray, etc etc.
Original text at Internet Archive Translation at Internet Archive Political Parties: A Sociological Study of the Oligarchical Tendencies of Modern Democracy : Zur Soziologie des Parteiwesens in der modernen Demokratie; Untersuchungen über die oligarchischen Tendenzen des Gruppenlebens is a book by the sociologist , published in 1911 and first introducing the concept of. The dismissal by the organized masses of auniversally esteemed leader would discredit the party throughout thecountry. Finally, the author desired to throw light upon certainsociological tendencies which oppose the reign of democracy, and to astill greater extent oppose the reign of socialism. We have seen that the replacement of thetraditional legitimism of the powers-that-be by the brutalplebiscitary rule of Bonapartist parvenus does not furnish thesetendencies with any moral or aesthetic superiority. In Holland today,Troelstra, the Dutch Lassalle, likewise succeeds in disarming hisopponents within the party by pathetically threatening to retire intoprivate life, saying that if they go on subjecting his actions to aninopportune criticism, his injured idealism will force him towithdraw from the daily struggles of party life. The notion ofthe representation of popular interests, a notion to which the greatmajority of democrats, and in especial the working-class masses ofthe German-speaking lands, cleave with so much tenacity andconfidence, is an illusion engendered by a false illumination, is aneffect of mirage.
Such has been our task. Inthis way there is constructed a powerful and complicated edifice. Le livre de Robert Michels est un classique de théorie politique, et c'est à juste titre. The leaderwho asks for a vote of confidence is in appearance submitting to thejudgment of his followers, but in reality he throws into the scalethe entire weight of his own indispensability, real or supposed, andthus commonly forces submission to his will. Theorganization is based upon the absolute equality of all its members.
Walter Dean Burnham, Critical Elections Norton 1970. Moreover, the principle of nationality cannot help us where nationalities barely exist or where they are entangled in inextricable confusion. Sometimes, however, the democratic principle carrieswith it, if not a cure, at least a palliative, for the disease ofoligarchy. It is certainly different as far as concerns leaders who have grownold in the service of the party. Apart from the gratitude which the masses feel towardsthe old fighter on account of the services he has rendered to thecause, he also possesses this great advantage over the novice that hehas a better knowledge of his trade.